Definisi dan Metode Ekonomi


Definisi dan Metode Ekonomi

Ilmu ekonomi merupakan cabang ilmu sosial yang mempelajari berbagai perilaku pelaku ekonomi terhadap keputusan-keputusan ekonomi yang dibuat. Ilmu ini diperlukan sebagai kerangka berpikir untuk dapat melakukan pilihan terhadap berbagai sumber daya yang terbatas untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia yang tidak terbatas.

Adapun tiga masalah pokok dalam perekonomian, yaitu

1.      Jenis barang dan jasa apa yang akan diproduksi?

2.      Bagaimana menghasilkan barang dan jasa tersebut?

3.      Untuk siapa barang dan jasa tersebut dihasilkan?

Ekonomi positif adalah pendekatan ekonomi yang mempelajari berbagai pelaku dan proses bekerjanya aktivitas ekonomi, tanpa menggunakan suatu pandangan subjektif untuk mengyatakan bahwa sesuatu itu baik atau jelek dari sudut pandang ekonomi. Ekonomi positif di bagi menjadi dua, yaitu ekonomi deskriptif dan ekonomi teori.

Sedangkan ekonomi normatif adalah pendekatan ekonomi dalam mempelajari perilaku ekonomi yang terjadi, dengan mencoba memberikan penilaian baik atau buruk berdasarkan pertimbangan subjektif.

Berkaitan dengan sistem ekonomi, ada tiga bentuk sistem ekonomi yang dikenal di dunia ini, yaitu:

1.      Sistem ekonomi pasar (Laissez-Faire Economy), merupakan sistem ekonomi yang berbasis pada kebebasan individu dan perusahaan dalam menentukan berbagai kegiatan ekonomi, seperti konsumsi dan produksi. Perekonomian akan menentukan titik keseimbangan dengan mengandalkan kemampuan pada sistem harga, yaitu tarik menarik antara permintaan dan penawaran. Keseimbangan harga serta jumlah barang dan jasa dalam perekonomian dibimbing oleh sesuatu yang tidak kelihatan (invisible hand).

2.      Sistem ekonomi terpusat (sistem ekonomi sosialis) atau disebut Command Economy, yaitu sistem ekonomi dimana pemerintah membuat semua kebijakan menyangkut produksi, distribusi, dan konsumsi. Dengan kata lain, dalam sistem ekonomi sosial yang murni, pemerintah mengatur semua aspek kegiatan ekonomi.

3.      Sistem ekonomi campuran yaitu gabungan dari sistem ekonomi pasar dan sistem ekonomi terpusat. Dalam sistem ekonomi campuran, kebebasan individu dan perusahaan dalam menentukan kegiatan ekonomi masih diakui, tetapi pemerintah ikut campur dalam perekonomian sebagai stabilisator ekonomi dengan memberlakukan berbagai kebijakan fiskal dan moneter.

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One response to “Definisi dan Metode Ekonomi

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